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A great alternative to coffee, this “heart opening” plant is loved by many

Cacao

Theobroma cacao L. Malvaceae

This plant is well-known as a confectionery, but has been valued as a medicine and food for thousands of years. Cacao is a rich medicine used for its effects upon the nervous system and in cardiovascular health.

  • How does it feel?

    If you have ever tasted cocoa powder or nibs, you will know that they are bitter. The tincture has a smell of chocolate with a bittersweet, rich and earthy taste.

  • What can I use it for?

    Cacao is a common food item, and can be found in many forms, raw or processed. It can be consumed this way as a nutritive plant, containing plenty of minerals and antioxidants.

    It is best to consume it as dark chocolate or as a powder or nibs to get the most nutritional benefit.

    Cacao may also be used to elevate mood and energy levels. It contains theobromine and small amounts of caffeine, which are both stimulants to the nervous system.

    It also has a reputation as an aphrodisiac, and may support libido.

  • Into the heart of Cacao

    Cacao has long been used as a food and medicine by the people of Mesoamerica, with archaeological research finding evidence of use as far back as 1000 BCE.

    As a native medicine of south America, cacao was traditionally used in sacred practice during ceremony. A Traditionally a deep decoction was made using a paste from the pure cacao nibs, mixed with water. Used in this way in a potent measured dose, cacao is believed to be able to work on the energetic heart, allowing one to access a deep state of transcendence. Whilst Cacao isn’t a psychedelic, it is well understood for its actions upon the mind as a gentle psychoactive and nervine medicine. In ceremony, Cacao has an incredible ability to allow one to enter a meditative space. 

    Cacao ceremonies have risen in popularity, Many who hold cacao ceremonies follow the traditions of its native land, guiding the use of this gentle yet powerful medicine with honour to its cultural understanding.

    Some evidence suggests that it is this positive cultural association with chocolate that is responsible for the elevation of mood, while others are investigating the possible biochemical explanations.

    One of the psychoactive compounds in cacao that is thought to be responsible for some of its psyco-spiritual effects is theobromine, as well as the well known cannabinoid- anandamide ‘the bliss molecule’. The word theobromine derives from its botanical name Theobroma cacao, which translates as ‘food of the Gods’. Theobromine is a bitter alkaloid which has been shown to be mildly stimulating as well as mood enhancing. It is also thought to be part of the mechanism of cacao medicine for improving one’s memory and focus.

    Cacao also increases the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain. With the combined psychoactive actions of anandamide and theobromine to uplift and enhance one’s state of mine, cacao is also thought to inducing the further induce the release of endorphins and dopamine, our ‘feel-good’ hormones. All of these mechanisms contribute to the enhancing actions of cacao – those that may lead us to exist in a peak state.

    One of the mechanisms by which cacao may be understood to have a heart opening effect is by an additional action of theobromine to increase dilation in the blood vessels. This action pays particular attention to the microcirculation of the heart itself. Often the ‘energetic’ uses of herbs can be grasped through the holistic understanding of their pharmacological actions.

  • Traditional uses

    The Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Toltec and Aztec claimed both nutritional and medicinal benefit from cacao prepared as a beverage. The tree was reportedly used as a source of materials for various objects that were central to daily life.

    The Florentine Codex lists over 100 medicinal uses for cocoa. Some of these uses were as a more palatable delivery mechanism for other medicines, and others are with cacao as a main medicinal agent. These remedies are for the spitting-up of blood, stomach complaints, bringing down milk in new mothers, fever, shortness of breath, and more.

    In Central America, the seed has been used as a heart and kidney tonic, and to treat the pains of childbirth, fevers and coughs.

    Cacao was brought to the Old World in the 16th century, where it was also toted for its medicinal qualities. Eventually, milk was added to the drink to make it more palatable, which led to its commonly known form of confectionery.

  • Traditional actions

    Western herbal actions are

    • Stimulant
    • Diuretic
    • Aphrodisiac
  • What practitioners say

    Nervous system: Chocolate is well known for bringing good feelings to those who consume it, just look at how often it is given as a gift on special occasions! Cacao is stimulating to the nervous system as it contains both caffeine and theobromine. 

    The caffeine is contained in small amounts, and theobromine is considered a mild stimulant by comparison, so the stimulation that cacao offers is generally considered low. Additionally, many people have positive memories associated with its familiar taste and aroma, and there is ongoing research into the mechanisms of how it improves mood. Thus, cacao can be a fantastic herb to gently elevate mood and energy.

    Cacao is an excellent medicine to use to support memory and focus. This works through a combined effect of its cardiovascular actions through improving the microcirculation in the brain whilst also exerting its effects on brain chemistry to positively enhance overall condition. 

    Cardiovascular system: While stimulating to the overall nervous system, cacao also has an effect on the cardiovascular system. It is used in ceremonial settings as a medicine for the spiritual heart. The chemistry of the bean has been shown to be protective of the cardiovascular system, and the consumption of cocoa is linked to healthy cardiovascular parameters. 

    Although perhaps not a primary cardiovascular remedy, cacao is helpful as part of a formula for the cardiovascular system. Cacao has been shown to have beneficial effects on platelet function, arterial stiffness and endothelial function (the endothelium is a thin membrane that lines the inside of the heart and blood vessels) (11, 12). There is also good reference to cacao having benefit to those with hypertension (13).

    However, its stimulating effects and contraindications need to be taken into account when considering including it in a remedy.

    Integumentary system (skin): Cocoa butter is a wonderful ingredient as it is very gentle and is a solid fat at room temperature. It also smells very pleasant. This is a perfect vehicle for adding infused oils and making pessaries, suppositories, creams, and thick body butters. All dry skin and mucous membranes can benefit.

  • Research

    The cardiovascular benefits of the polyphenols found in cacao have been well researched. They have been shown to promote the body’s synthesis of nitric oxide, which promotes vasodilation and thus reduces blood pressure. Nitric oxide prevents leukocyte adhesion, smooth muscle proliferation and platelet aggregation and adhesion. If there is a deficiency in nitric oxide, the risk of atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and hypertension increases. A meta-analysis of clinical trials found that chocolate and cocoa ingestion increased vasodilation, lowered blood pressure, and reduced serum insulin levels.

    A meta-analysis concluded that short-term consumption of dark chocolate lowered LDL cholesterol. In several studies, however, chocolate consumption has had no effect on lipid profiles, or has increased HDL cholesterol.

    Cocoa increases cerebral blood flow through these same mechanisms. The phenolic compounds have also been observed to activate cascade pathways that play a role in synaptic function, neuronal growth, memory, and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Cacao also contains N-acylethanolamines which act as cannabinoid mimics, and increase anandamide levels. This may be one of the ways it is responsible for improving mood and sexual arousal. However, some studies have determined that the effect on mood is due to the taste, rather than the chemical constituents.

    The antioxidant activity of chocolate is of interest for its potential anti-carcinogenic effects. In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated reduced tumour size and increased chemosensitisation. The antioxidant activity may also contribute to protective benefits for the skin. One study determined that high flavanol chocolate decreased UV-induced erythema (sunburn).

  • Did you know?

    Theobroma means “Food of the Gods”.

Additional information

  • Safety

    Cacao is safe when used in quantities contained within food. It is important to note that cacao contains natural caffeine and may be unsafe in doses higher than 400 mg per day depending on peoples caffeine tolerance. While most cacao products contain only small amounts of caffeine (approximately 2 mg to 35 mg per serving), one cup of unsweetened, dry cacao powder can contain up to 198 mg of caffeine.

    Cacao is safe to use in pregnancy and lactation however, it is important to monitor caffeine intake.  Consumption of caffeine in amounts over 200 mg per day are unsafe in pregnancy.

  • Interactions

    None known

  • Contraindications

    None known

  • Preparation

    Cacao is often used as a food to gain its therapeutic benefits. In herbal medicine, cacao can also sometimes be used by herbalists in tincture or powdered forms. Both raw and roasted cacao preparations are used, as they both have medicinal and nutritional benefits. 

    Raw cacao is often thought to be superior. Raw cacao is not completely unprocessed as it will have been fermented. It is, however, unroasted. Cocoa powder is both fermented and roasted.

    Unroasted ‘raw’ cacao contains more vitamins and minerals, more ‘happy compounds,’ and more antioxidants.

  • Dosage

    Ceremonial dosage of cacao is thought to be around 42g of raw cacao per person. This is a strong dose that is used to encourage a meditative state and should only be taken on occasion.

  • Plant parts used

    Bean (the nibs that come from inside the bean are used). Cacao shells and butter can also be used for food though they are not as medicinal.

  • Constituents

    • Anandamide: known as the ‘bliss molecule; for its role in producing the feeling of happiness, anandamide is an endogenous cannabinoid found naturally in cacao and the human brain.
    • Alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, phenylethylamine
    • Polyphenols (10%): proanthocyanidins and catechins
    • Minerals: potassium, phosphorous, copper, zinc, iron, magnesium
    • Fat: cocoa butter (40-50%), oleic acid (33%), palmitic acid (25%), stearic acid (33%)
  • Habitat

    Theobroma cacao is native to Mexico, Central America, and Northern South America. It grows in the shade of larger trees in the rain forest, in clumps along riverbanks, where roots may be flooded. It has been introduced as a crop plant in many tropical African and Asian countries. There are three main cultivars; Criollo, Forastero (the most common), and Arriba.

  • Sustainability

    Cacao has not yet been accessed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. However, it is important to consider fair-trade and sustainability when sourcing medicinal and nutritional products, with cacao this is particularly important. 

    The cacao industry is a well known for being the cause of vast deforestation in West Africa, particularly in the Ivory Coast. Experts estimate that 70% of the country’s illegal deforestation is related to cacao farming. 

    Additional to the environmental factors above, the chocolate (cacao) industry has a century-long history of forced and child labor. Children working on cocoa plantations are unavoidably exposed to certain hazards, including dangerous tools, dust, flames or smoke, hazardous chemicals, and/or physically demanding labor such as carrying heavy loads or spending many hours in the sun.

    We must all make it our priority to source sustainable and ethical produce, in a bid to support farming methods that show consideration for people and the planet. ‘Ethically sourced’ chocolate means that the chocolate has been grown, farmed, and produced with the environment in mind and that the company has treated the cocoa growers and farmers fairly. When sourcing cacao or chocolate look for products that clearly display USDA organic and fair trade mark certification. This should be clear on its packaging.

  • Quality control

    For the medicinal and nutritional benefits of cacao, one must source a quality, organic, raw cacao preparation. Cacao was brought to the Western World in the 16th century. In the West, dairy milk was added, for many centuries chocolate or cocoa was a high value delicacy. Nowadays, the majority of readily available chocolate products, that most of us know and love only contain trace amounts of real cacao. Most over the counter or supermarket chocolate products contain more sugar, dairy and fats than the medicinal bean of cacao.

    The process of fermenting and drying the beans is critical in releasing its pigments. The polyphenolic compounds undergo a series of reactions, which alters their overall content in the product. Raw Cacao products will always go through the fermenting and drying process.

    Herbal Medicines are often extremely safe to take, however it is important to buy herbal medicines from a reputed supplier. Sometimes herbs bought from unreputable sources are contaminated, adulterated or substituted with incorrect plant matter.

    Some important markers for quality to look for would be to look for certified organic labelling, ensuring that the correct scientific/botanical name is used and that suppliers can provide information about the source of ingredients used in the product.

    A supplier should be able to tell you where the herbs have come from. There is more space for contamination and adulteration when the supply chain is unknown.

  • How to grow

    Growing cacao in the west is not an easy task, this is because cacao is an understory plant of warm rainforests. Growing cacao trees requires mimicking these conditions. Cacao grows successfully in USDA zones 11- 13. However it may be grown under warm and humid conditions in a greenhouse, and will require more vigilant and specialised care.

    • To grow from seed, viable cacao seeds must still be retained in the fresh pod, or at least to have been kept moist since their removal from pod. If dried out, they will be unviable.
    • Seeds may begin sprouting from the pod. If your seeds have no roots yet, place them between damp paper towels in a warm (80 degrees F + / over 26 C.) area until they begin to root.
    • Pot the rooted seeds in individual pots filled with damp seed starter soil. Place the seed vertically with the root end facing down, covering with soil just to the top of the seed. 
    • For best result, cover the pots with cling film or similar. It is worth placing them on a germination mat to maintain temperature of around 80 f (27 C.). Within 5-10 days, the seed should sprout, remove the wrap and put the seedlings on a partially shaded windowsill or under the end of a grow light.
    • Cacao trees should grow on keep the plant damp and at temps between 65-85 degrees F. (18-29 C.) – warmer is better. Fertilize every two weeks from spring through fall.
  • Recipe

    Calming Hot Chocolate

    Ingredients:

    • 1/2 tsp powdered Ashwagandha
    • 2 tsp powdered cocoa or cacao
    • 1 pinch of nutmeg
    • 1/4 tsp vanilla extract
    • Add sweetener to taste

    Method:

    • Blend powder with small amount of hot water to make a paste.
    • Add hot milk of choice and stir.
    • Enjoy!

    Aphrodite’s aphrodisiac tea

    This tea reaches deep into the reproductive system, nourishing our procreative and sexual energy. Use it when preparing for a family or for nurturing your love life. For men and women, this elixir feeds sex hormone release, improves egg/sperm quality and enhances orgasmic experiences.

    Ingredients:

    • Shatavari root 4g
    • Ashwagandha root 2g
    • Licorice root 2g
    • Cinnamon bark 2g
    • Milk (any type) 250ml (9fl oz)
    • Damiana leaf 2g
    • Cacao powder 1 tsp per cup
    • Maca root 1 tsp per cup
    • Flower pollen ½ tsp per cup
    • Vanilla essence a dash per cup
    • Honey (or Amaretto) a drop per cup

    Makes 2 cups of the most amorous elixir.

    Method:

    • Put the shatavari, ashwagandha, licorice and cinnamon in a saucepan with the milk and 250ml/9fl oz cold filtered water.
    • Cover, bring to the boil and allow to simmer for 15 minutes. Take off the heat and add the damiana leaf.
    • Leave to steep for 10 minutes, then strain.
    • To each cup, add the cacao, maca, flower pollen, vanilla essence and honey. Then top with the tea and stir.

    Bliss of the gods hot chocolate

    Theobroma cacao is known to us as cocoa (or once there’s some sugar and at in there, chocolate). Theobroma means ‘food of the gods’ – and with good reason. Try this elixir for an entirely new and extremely decadent experience.

    Ingredients:

    • Unsweetened chocolate 100g (3.5oz)
    • Water or nut milk 100ml (3.5 fl oz)
    • Vanilla bean essence 1–2 drops to taste
    • Honey to taste

    This will serve 2 small cups of bliss-inducing nectar.

    Method:

    • Melt the chocolate in a bain-marie before stirring in the water or nut milk.
    • Add the vanilla bean essence and honey to taste then pour into small coffee cups.
    • Play around with this recipe. Add a drop of orange essential oil or some rose water to transform it into

    Recipes from Cleanse, Nurture, Restore by Sebastian Pole

  • References

    1. Rusconi M, Conti A. Theobroma cacao L., the Food of the Gods: a scientific approach beyond myths and claims. Pharmacol Res. 2010;61(1):5-13. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2009.08.008
    2. Montagna MT, Diella G, Triggiano F, et al. Chocolate, “Food of the Gods”: History, Science, and Human Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(24):4960. Published 2019 Dec 6. doi:10.3390/ijerph16244960
    3. Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. Dorling Kindersley Limited; 2016
    4. Fahey DM, Miller J. Alcohol and Drugs in North America : A Historical Encyclopedia. Abc-Clio, Llc, An Imprint Of Abc-Clio, Llc; 2013
    5. Manuchair Ebadi. Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine, Second Edition. Crc Press; 2006.
    6. Katz DL, Doughty K, Ali A. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15(10):2779-2811. doi:10.1089/ars.2010.3697
    7. Hooper L, Kay C, Abdelhamid A, et al. Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012;95(3):740-751. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.023457
    8. Allen RR, Carson L, Kwik-Uribe C, Evans EM, Erdman JW. Daily Consumption of a Dark Chocolate Containing Flavanols and Added Sterol Esters Affects Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Normotensive Population with Elevated Cholesterol. The Journal of Nutrition. 2008;138(4):725-731. doi:10.1093/jn/138.4.725
    9. Macht M, Mueller J. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states. Appetite. 2007;49(3):667-674. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2007.05.004
    10. Williams S, Tamburic S, Lally C. Eating chocolate can significantly protect the skin from UV light. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 2009;8(3):169-173. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2009.00448.
    11. Jafari Azad B, Daneshzad E, Meysamie AP, Koohdani F. Chronic and acute effects of cocoa products intake on arterial stiffness and platelet count and function: A systematic review and dose-response Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Feb 4;61(3):357-79.
    12. Sun Y, Zimmermann D, De Castro CA, Actis-Goretta L. Dose–response relationship between cocoa flavanols and human endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Food & function. 2019;10(10):6322-30.
    13. Desch S, Schmidt J, Kobler D, Sonnabend M, Eitel I, Sareban M, et al. Effect of cocoa products on blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Hyperten. 2010 Jan 1;23(1):97-103.
Aromatic
An ‘aromatic’ remedy, high in volatile essential oils, was most often associated with calming and sometimes ‘warming’ the digestion. Most kitchen spices and herbs have this quality: they were used both as flavouring and to ease the digestion of sometimes challenging pre-industrial foods. Many aromatics are classed as ‘carminatives’ and are used to reduce colic, bloating and agitated digestion. They also often feature in respiratory remedies for colds, chest and other airway infections. They are also classic calming inhalants and massage oils, and are the basis of aromatherapy for their mental benefits.
Astringent taste
The puckering taste you get with many plants (the most familiar is black tea after being stewed too long, or some red wines) is produced by complex polyphenols such as tannins. Tannins are used in concentrated form (eg from oak bark) to make leather from animal skins. The process of ‘tanning’ involves the coagulation of relatively fluid proteins in living tissues into tight clotted fibres (similar to the process of boiling an egg). Tannins in effect turn exposed surfaces on the body into leather. In the case of the lining of mouth and upper digestive tract this is only temporary as new mucosa are replenished, but in the meantime can calm inflamed or irritated surfaces. In the case of open wounds tannins can be a life-saver – when strong (as in the bark of broadleaved trees) they can seal a damaged surface. One group of tannins, the reddish-brown ‘condensed tannins’ are procyanidins, which can reduce inflammation and oxidative damage.
Bitter
Bitters are a very complex group of phytochemicals that stimulate the bitter receptors in the mouth. They were some of the most valuable remedies in ancient medicine. They were experienced as stimulating appetite and switching on a wide range of key digestive functions, including increasing bile clearance from the liver (as bile is a key factor in bowel health this can be translated into improving bowel functions and the microbiome). Many of these reputations are being supported by new research on the role of bitter receptors in the mouth and elsewhere round the body. Bitters were also seen as ‘cooling’ reducing the intensity of some fevers and inflammatory diseases.
Blue-purple colouring
Any fruits with a blue-purple colouring contain high levels of the polyphenols known as anthocyanins. These work 1) on the walls of small blood vessels, helping to maintain capillary structure to reduce a key stage in inflammation, and improving the microcirculation to the tissues; 2) to improve retinal function and vision; 3) to support connective tissue repair around the body.
Cooling
Traditional ‘cold’ or cooling’ remedies often contain bitter phytonutrients such a iridoids (gentian), sesiquterpenes (chamomile), anthraquinones (rhubarb root), mucilages (marshmallow), some alkaloids and flavonoids. They tend to influence the digestive system, liver and kidneys. Cooling herbs do just that; they diffuse, drain and clear heat from areas of inflammation, redness and irritation. Sweet, bitter and astringent herbs tend to be cooling.
Hot
Traditional ‘hot’ or ‘heating’ remedies, often containing spice ingredients like capsaicin, the gingerols (ginger), piperine (black or long pepper), curcumin (turmeric) or the sulfurous isothiocyanates from mustard, horseradich or wasabi, generate warmth when taken. In modern times this might translate as thermogenic and circulatory stimulant effects. There is evidence of improved tissue blood flow with such remedies: this would lead to a reduction in build-up of metabolites and tissue damage. Heating remedies were used to counter the impact of cold, reducing any symptoms made worse in the cold. .
Mucilaginous
Mucilages are complex carbohydrate based plant constituents with a slimy or ‘unctuous’ feel especially when chewed or macerated in water. Their effect is due simply to their physical coating exposed surfaces. From prehistory they were most often used as wound remedies for their soothing and healing effects on damaged tissues. Nowadays they are used more for these effects on the digestive lining, from the throat to the stomach, where they can relieve irritation and inflammation such as pharyngitis and gastritis. Some of the prominent mucilaginous remedies like slippery elm, aloe vera and the seaweeds can be used as physical buffers to reduce the harm and pain caused by reflux of excess stomach acid. Mucilages are also widely used to reduce dry coughing. Here the effect seems to be by reflex through embryonic nerve connections: reduced signals from the upper digestive wall appear to translate as reduced activity of airway muscles and increased activity of airway mucus cells. Some seed mucilages, such as in psyllium seed, flaxseed (linseed) or guar bean survive digestion to provide bulking laxative effects in the bowel. These can also reduce rate of absorption of sugar and cholesterol. .
New-mown hay aroma
The familiar country odour of haymaking, of drying grass and other plants, is largely produced by coumarins (originally isolated from tonka beans – in French coumarou) and widely used in perfumery. They are chemically categorised as benzopyrone lactones and are important phytochemicals, with strong antioxidant activity in the laboratory and likely effects in modulating inflammation. They were most often associated with the calming effect linked to their use in stuffing mattresses and pillows and plants, high In coumarins were commonly used for these properties.
Resinous
Resins are most familiar as tacky discharges from pine trees (and as the substance in amber, and rosin for violin bows). They were most valued however as the basis of ancient commodities like frankincense and myrrh (two of the three gifts of the Three Wise Men to the baby Jesus) and getting access to their source was one benefit to Solomon for marrying the Queen of Sheba (now Ethiopia). Resins were the original antiseptic remedies, ground and applied as powders or pastes to wounds or inflamed tissues, and were also used for mummification. With alcohol distillation it was found that they could be dissolved in 90% alcohol and in this form they remain a most powerful mouthwash and gargle, for infected sore throats and gum disease. They never attracted much early research interest because they permanently coat expensive glassware! For use in the mouth, gums and throat hey are best combined with concentrated licorice extracts to keep the resins in suspension and add extra soothing properties. It appears that they work both as local antiseptics and by stimulating white blood cell activity under the mucosal surface. They feel extremely effective!
Salty
The salty flavour is immediately distinctive. A grain dropped onto the tongue is instantly moistening and a sprinkle on food enkindles digestion. This easily recognisable flavour has its receptors right at the front of the tongue. The salty flavor creates moisture and heat, a sinking and heavy effect which is very grounding for the nervous system and encourages stability. People who are solid and reliable become known as ‘the salt of the earth'.
Sharpness
The sharp taste of some fruits, and almost all unripe fruits, as well as vinegar and fermented foods, is produced by weak acids (the taste is generated by H+ ions from acids stimulating the sour taste buds). Sour taste buds are hard-wired to generate immediate reflex responses elsewhere in the body. Anyone who likes the refreshing taste of lemon or other citrus in the morning will know that one reflex effect is increased saliva production. Other effects are subjective rather than confirmed by research but there is a consistent view that they include increased digestive activity and contraction of the gallbladder.
Sweet
In the days when most people never tasted sugar, ‘sweetness’ was associated with the taste of basic foods: that of cooked vegetables, cereals and meat. In other words sweet was the quality of nourishment, and ‘tonic’ remedies. Describing a remedy as sweet generally led to that remedy being used in convalescence or recovery from illness. Interestingly, the plant constituents most often found in classic tonics like licorice, ginseng are plant steroids including saponins, which also have a sweet taste.

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