How does it feel?
The taste of burdock root is a mix of slight acridity, slight bitterness and a mucilaginous property. None of these tastes dominate though overall it is the bitter and mucilaginous properties that linger longest on the palate.
What can I use it for?
In European traditions burdock is one of the classic ‘blood cleansers’, ‘blood purifers’, ‘depurative’ or ‘alterative’, remedies that were seen in various ways reduce toxins, particularly associated with skin problems. The root has been the part of the plant most often used, although the seeds have also been used for the same purposes and were the choice particularly among European settlers in North America.
The European Medicines Agency describes burdock as a traditional herbal medicine to increase the amount of urine (to flush the urinary tract during minor urinary tract complaints), for temporary loss of appetite, and for the treatment of seborrhoeic skin conditions (seborrheic eczema is associated with blocked sebaceous glands, especially around hair follicles, and is similar to acne.
These compilations of traditional reputations distil into burdock having three main roles, 1) as a diuretic to reduce fluid congestion and relieve urinary discomforts, 2) as a bitter digestive and 3) as a detox remedy especially when there is eczema or other skin conditions.
The leaves, seeds and root were also used externally, all having a soothing mucilaginous property and in the case of the seeds an oiliness that was highly regarded as a skin tonic. As Culpeper noted “The Burdock leaves are cooling and moderately drying… wherby good for old ulcers and sores”.
Into the heart of Burdock
Burdock is one of the most impressive internal treatments for skin problems in traditional western herbal medicine.
It appears to detoxify, in part through the urinary tract, probably through the digestive system as well. However clinical experience is that it appears to work in the tissues themselves, removing inflammatory metabolites directly into the circulation. Thus burdock is more likely than other depurative remedies temporarily to exacerbate skin problems, a problem much reduced by mixing it with other more eliminatory remedies, in western traditions including dandelion, artichoke leaf, cleavers, figwort, fumitory, sweet violet, red clover, yellow dock and various other diuretic and laxative remedies.
One image to understand this is that around 85% of the body’s fluids are in its tissues, with only 15% in the circulation: too precipitate a ‘dumping’ of tissue metabolites into the circulation could lead to a form of toxaemia, marked in part by increased inflammation on the skin or elsewhere. Combining this ‘pushing’ property of burdock with the ‘pulling’ eliminatory properties of other cleansing remedies will reduce this impact. Another image is that if a cleansing blend was a train, burdock would be the locomotive.
So a good policy with burdock is to start with a low dose and ‘titrate’ it upwards, always combining it with other cleansing remedies.
The root has been used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for congested and toxic conditions, with recent application to diabetes and in Japan in cancer care. The seeds are used in TCM for septic conditions, boils, abscesses, and especially for throat inflammations. They are also used as cooling diaphoretic remedies in fever management and a diuretic formerly applied to dropsy and other cases of oedema.
With sheep sorrel, slippery elm, and rhubarb root, burdock root is a component of ESSIAC, a formulation originally promoted as an alternative cancer treatment by a Canadian nurse Rene Caisse (ESSIAC is her name spelt backwards). This blend is clearly intended as a detox or cleansing regime.
Alteratives are herbs that ‘alter’ the condition in a tissue by eliminating metabolic waste via the liver, large intestine, lungs, lymphatic system, skin and kidneys. Examples include Burdock root (Arctium lappa), Dandelion root (Taraxacum officinalis), Cleavers (Galium aparine), Poke (Phytolacca decandra) and Nettle leaf (Urtica dioica).Antimicrobial
Antimicrobials are herbs that interfere with the proliferation and life-cycle of microbes; bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Examples include Thyme leaf (Thymus vulgaris), Echinacea (Echinacea species), Elderberry (Sambucus nigra).Antirheumatic
Antirheumatic medicines prevent or relieve rheumatic symptoms such as joint pains, limited mobility and swelling. Plants that have this effect include celery seed (apium graveolens), black cohosh (cimicifuga racemose), nettle leaf (urtica dioca), devils claw (harpagophytum procumbens) and willow bark (salix alba).Bitters
Bitters stimulate digestion by enhancing digestive secretion and peristaltic movements of the gut. They act via a reflex from the taste buds to the brain then through the vagus nerve to whole digestive system. Often these herbs are combined with warming digestives to balance the cold nature of bitters. Examples include Artichoke leaf (Cynara scolymus), Gentian root (Gentiana lutea), Wormwood leaf (Artemisia absinthium), Oregon Grape root (Mahonia aquifolium), Goldenseal root (Hydrastis canadensis).Cholagogues and choleretics
Cholagogues promote the production of bile in the liver. A cholereticis a type of cholagogue that promotes the release of bile from the gall bladder into the duodenum. Cholagogues have an alterative and laxative effect. Cholagogues are contra-indicated if there is acute liver failure, obstructive jaundice, painful gallstones or cholecystitis. Examples include Celandine leaf (Chelidonium majus), Barberry root (Berberis vulgaris), Dandelion root and leaf (Taraxacum officinalis root), and Blue Flag root (Iris versicolor).Depurative
Depurative is a substance that improves detoxification and aids elimination to reduce the accumulation of metabolic waste products within the body. They were formerly known as alteratives or blood purifiers and are largely used to treat chronic skin and muscoskeletal disorders. Depurative plants include burdock, echinacea root (echinacea angustofolia), nettle leaf (urtica diocia) and yellow dock (rumex crispus).Diaphoretics
Diaphoretics are herbs that cause sweating by increasing circulation in the periphery of the body. Usually used to help to relieve fevers, some examples are Yarrow aerial parts (Achillea millefolium), Elder flowers (Sambucus niger), Ginger root (Zingiber officinalis).Diuretics
Diuretics are herbs that stimulate the flow of urine, and help remove fluids from the body. Common examples are Dandelion leaf (Taraxacum officinalis), Burdock root (Arctium lappa) and Corn silk (Zea mays).Hepatics
Hepatics are herbs that generally support liver function by decongesting as well as supporting bile flow. Examples include Dandelion root (Taraxacum officinalis), Yellowdock root (Rumex crispus), Turmeric root (Curcuma longa).Hepatoprotective
Hepatoprotective herbs support and protect the liver. Often they can help regenerate the liver, and examples include milk thistle, rosemary, dandelion, andrographis and schisandra.Stomachic
Stomachic herbs promote the appetite or assist digestion, for example psyllium husk is a bulk laxative that supports the digestive tract.Vulneraries
Vulneraries are wound-healing herbs used internally and externally. Astringent herbs such as Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) and Shepherd’s Purse leaf (Capsella bursa-pastoris) directly stop bleeding and promote the formation of an eschar (scab). Mucilaginous herbs such as Plantain leaf (Plantago lanceolata) and Selfheal leaf (Prunella vulgaris) soothe inflammation. Some vulneraries are used internally to speed tissue healing, including Marigold flower (Calendula officinalis), Plantain leaf (Plantago lanceolata), Selfheal leaf (Prunella vulgaris), and Marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis).
What practitioners say
Burdock is a popular and regularly used remedy in western herbal practice, most often as a carefully administered component of detoxifying regimes to reduce inflammatory conditions on the skin and in the joints
Lymphatic: A mild diaphoretic (sweat-inducer) which also supports the movement in the lymphatic system which could help explain its effectiveness as a cleanser or purifier, potentially eliminating harmful toxins from the body. Burdock is often applied by herbalists to stimulate movement in the lymphatic system (5).
Skin: Burdock is one of the most effective remedies for the treatment of psoriasis, eczema and other dermatitis (7). It is also used in a number of other inflammatory skin conditions, this is largely due to its unique effect on both the liver and the lymphatic system (5). It is specific in the treatment of seborrhoeic skin conditions (6).
Digestion: A gentle bitter digestive, combining well with dandelion where appetite and digestion needs improving, especially in recovery from illness. Burdock is indicated as an appetite stimulant for anorexia nervosa.
Urinary: Burdock is also often used by herbalists as a diuretic (increasing urine production and elimination). By increasing the output of fluid from the body, burdock has a flushing effect upon the urinary tract as an adjuvant in minor urinary tract complaints (6).
Metabolic and inflammatory: Burdock as a reputation for supporting other herbs in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.
Musculoskeletal: Its diuretic properties are associated with benefits in osteoarthritis, gout and rheumatic conditions (7).
Much is now known about the constituents of burdock and their individual activities, but there is not much research on burdocks traditional uses (2, 3). We have shared some relevant studies below.
Acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is a common gastrointestinal condition, with clinical presentation ranging from mild abdominal pain to peritonitis with sepsis. Colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in adults. The experimental group received 1.5g of burdock tea three times a day, and the control group did not receive any treatment. There was a lower recurrence of ACD 5/47 (10.6%) vs 14/44 (31.8%) in the control group. The recurrence-free duration was also observed in the burdock tea at 59.3 months vs 45.1 months for the control group. This randomized controlled trial demonstrated that daily consistent consumption of burdock tea could be effective for the prevention and reduction of ACD recurrence but not for CDB recurrence (8).
A study was conducted on 36 people between 50-70 years old suffering from bilateral knee osteoarthritis. They were given 3 cups a day of burdock root tea (2g of tea steeped in 150ml of boiled water for 10 mins) for six weeks. Blood lipid profiles and blood pressure were measured, and a significant improvement was seen in both parameters. The patients in the burdock group had significantly decreased levels of inflammatory markers (IL-6, hs- CRP and malondialdehyde) with significant increase in antioxidant activity (4).
A review which shared the pharmacology of burdock showed it has anti-inflammatory activities via inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and therefore inhibition of nitric oxide production. It has also been shown to suppress of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B pathway and activate antioxidant enzymes which increases scavenging of free radicals. These mechanisms are thought to be the basis of burdocks anti-inflammatory action and may be how it can support inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis (3).
Did you know?
The well-known dandelion and burdock drink originated in Britain from the Middle Ages as a light fermented decoction of the two roots, picking up on their spring-cleaning associations. The popular carbonated drink was launched in 1871 in Yorkshire, to become a global commodity in the 20th century.
A strong biennial plant extending up to 2 metres high, marked out by its very large ovate-cordate leaves up to 45cm across, though getting smaller up the stem; they are generally smooth above and with white cottony down underneath.
The other distinguishing marks are the flowers, borne in clusters at the top of the stems, globular in shape and covered with a dense array of stiff hooked bracts that cling to anything coming in contact; enclosed inside are purple florets, and after fruiting large achenes with a short pappus of stiff hairs on each. The long root, up to 3 feet long, runs straight down into the subsoil; when chopped and dried it is covered externally with brown cork and longitudinally wrinkled, the inner surface mealy and buff-white.
- Great burdock
- Beggars buttons
- Thorny burr
- Klette (Ger)
- Bardane (Fr)
- Bardana (Ital, Sp)
Alternate botanical names:
- A. major Gaertn.
- A. minus (Hill) Bernh.
- A. tomentosum Mill.
There are 18 recognized species of
burdock around the world, among which five are considered as
hybrid species; many are used interchangeably with A. lappa.
Apart from occasional reports of contact dermatitis from the fresh plant, burdock has no significant safety concerns. As indicated elsewhere in this monograph it has quite pronounced detoxifying effects that can be associated with temporary exacerbations of dermatitis and other skin problems. These are not long-term risks and are reduced in clinical practice by combining burdock with other eliminatory remedies.
Not to be used where there are known allergies to plants in the Asteraceaea (Daisy) family.
Pregnant women or women trying to become pregnant should avoid burdock.
Tincture (1:5 25%): Take between 2-4ml three time a day.
The full traditional dose is 3 – 18 g per day of the dried root by decoction. However, it is often wise to ‘titrate’ the remedy: starting with a low dose and working upwards.
Plant parts used
All parts of the plant can be used for food or medicinal purposes, but mostly the taproot is used in herbal medicine.
- bitter sesquiterpene lactones (including arctiopicrin)
- lignans (eg. arctigenin and its glycoside arctiin, neoarctin A and B, arctignan D and E, lappaol A, C, and H)
- inulin and pectic polysaccharides
- phytosterols (including daucosterol and B-sitosterol)
- acetylenes including arctinones, arctinols, arctinal, arctic acids
- caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic and hydroxycinnamic acids
- various volatiles
Arctigenin has strong anti-inflammatory properties in laboratory research (1). It is higher in the seeds used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
- Rasa (taste) bitter, pungent
- Virya (action) cooling
- Vipaka (post-digestive effect) sweet
- Guna (quality) cold, dry and heavy
- Dosha effect: steadies vata and reduces excessive pitta and kapha
- Dhatu (tissue) plasma, blood
- Srotas (channels) urinary, blood, digestive
Burdock species, native to Europe and Asia, have been naturalised throughout North America. Though regarded as weeds in the United States, they are cultivated for their edible root in Asia. Burdock thrives along riverbanks, disturbed habitats, roadsides, vacant lots, and fields.
According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status: This species is classified as ‘Least Concern’ due to its widespread distribution, stable populations and no major threats.
Herbal Medicines are often extremely safe to take, however it is important to buy herbal medicines from a reputed supplier. Sometimes herbs bought from unreputable sources are contaminated, adulterated or substituted with incorrect plant matter.
Some important markers for quality to look for would be to look for certified organic labelling, ensuring that the correct scientific/botanical name is used and that suppliers can provide information about the source of ingredients used in the product.
A supplier should be able to tell you where the herbs have come from. There is more space for contamination and adulteration when the supply chain is unknown.
How to grow
Burdock is a herbaceous biennial which is easy to grow. It can be introduced to contained areas of the garden or in pots, but steps will need to be taken to contain the plant as it successfully seeds itself in autumn. Simple remove the seed heads.
- Burdock prefers loamy soil and a neutral pH in areas with average water.
- Seeds should be stratified. Around 80 to 90% of seeds will germinate when sown directly in spring after all danger of frost has passed.
- Plant seeds 1/8 inches under the soil and keep evenly moist. Germination takes place in one to two weeks.
- Once germinated, young plants can grow quickly but it takes some time to establish a taproot of sufficient size to harvest.
- Plants should be spaced at least 18 inches (46 cm.) apart. For the most part, burdock has no significant pest or disease issues and is easy to grow and maintain.
Let me glow tea
This delicious recipe is a healing blend of chlorophyll-rich herbs that purify the blood, soothe the liver and cleanse the skin, helping you glow from the inside out. Good for anyone with pimples, acne or other skin blemishes.
- Nettle leaf 3g
- Fennel seed 2g
- Peppermint leaf 2g
- Dandelion root 2g
- Burdock root 2g
- Red clover 2g
- Turmeric root powder 1g
- Licorice root 1g
- Lemon juice a twist per cup
This will serve 2 cups of beautifying tea.
- Put all of the ingredients in a pot (except the lemon). Add 500ml (18fl oz) freshly boiled filtered water.
- Leave to steep for 10–15 minutes, then strain and add the lemon.
- Gao Q, Yang M, Zuo Z. (2018) Overview of the anti-inflammatory effects, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacies of arctigenin and arctiin from Arctium lappa L. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 39(5): 787-801. doi: 10.1038/aps.2018.32
- Wang D, Bădărau AS, Swamy MK, et al. (2019) Arctium Species Secondary Metabolites Chemodiversity and Bioactivities. Front Plant Sci. 10: 834. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00834
- Chan YS, Cheng LN, Wu JH, et al. (2011) A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology. 19(5): 245-54. doi: 10.1007/s10787-010-0062-4.
- Maghsoumi-Norouzabad L, Alipoor B, Abed R, et al. (2016) Effects of Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) root tea on inflammatory status and oxidative stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Int J Rheum Dis. 19(3): 255-61. doi: 10.1111/1756- 185X.12477.
- HerbRally. (n.d.). Burdock Monograph. [online] Available at: https://www.herbrally.com/monographs/burdock.
- Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) Community herbal monograph on Arctium lappa L., radix Final Discussion in Working Party on Community monographs and Community. (2010). [online] Available at: https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/herbal-monograph/final-community-herbal-monograph-arctium-lappa-l-radix_en.pdf.
- British Herbal Medicine Association. Scientific Committee (2003). A guide to traditional herbal medicines : a sourcebook of accepted traditional uses of medicinal plants within Europe. London: British Herbal Medicine Association.
- Mizuki, A. et al. (2019) Effects of burdock tea on recurrence of colonic diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding: An open-labelled randomized clinical trial, Scientific reports. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494891/ (Accessed: January 12, 2023).